对尼安德特人胸部的重建,发现与现代人的不同

论文标题:3D virtual reconstruction of the Kebara 2 Neandertal thorax

期刊:Nature Communications

作者:Asier Gómez-Olivencia,Alon Barash, Daniel García-Martínez, Mikel Arlegi, Patricia Kramer, Markus Bastir, Ella Been

发表时间:2018/10/30

数字识别码: 10.1038/s41467-018-06803-z

原文链接:http://t.cn/EwQwuov

微信链接:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/Tx_YGssxqc1ukRO5vsCFzA

《自然-通讯》近日发表的一项研究3D virtual reconstruction of the Kebara 2 Neandertal thorax对一名成年男性尼安德特人的胸部进行了虚拟三维重建。分析显示,尼安德特人的胸部大小与现代人的胸部大小相似,但形状不同。基于这一发现,作者推断尼安德特人的呼吸机制可能与现代人的呼吸机制稍有不同

图1:成年尼安德特人Kebara 2的胸部重建。图源:Gómez-Olivencia, A. Barash & E. Been

自150多年前首次发现尼安德特人的肋骨以来,科学界对尼安德特人的胸部大小和形状一直存在争议。有些观点认为尼安德特人的胸部形态与现代人无异,有些则认为其具有显著差异。

图2:尼安德特人Kebara 2被发现时的骨架照片。图源:J. Trueba/Madrid Scientific Films

西班牙巴斯克大学的Asier Gómez-Olivencia及同事对迄今发现最完整的成年尼安德特人Kebara 2(K2)的胸部进行了重建,发现重建后的胸廓大小与现代人的相似,但下段更宽。

作者指出,K2胸部下段直径较大导致了横隔膜表面也更大。分析显示,下段较宽的胸腔在吸气时体积会产生更多增量(呼吸量)。作者因此假定,尼安德特人的呼吸机制相比现代人更依赖横隔膜收缩。

图3:生活在缅甸白垩纪时期的蛙类艺术重建图。图源:Damir G Martin

作者指出,只有发现更多化石并开展进一步研究才能理解这一解剖部位的演化。

摘要:The size and shape of the Neandertal thorax has been debated since the first discovery of Neandertal ribs more than 150 years ago, with workers proposing different interpretations ranging from a Neandertal thoracic morphology that is indistinguishable from modern humans, to one that was significantly different from them. Here, we provide a virtual 3D reconstruction of the thorax of the adult male Kebara 2 Neandertal. Our analyses reveal that the Kebara 2 thorax is significantly different but not larger from that of modern humans, wider in its lower segment, which parallels his wide bi-iliac breadth, and with a more invaginated vertebral column. Kinematic analyses show that rib cages that are wider in their lower segment produce greater overall size increments (respiratory capacity) during inspiration. We hypothesize that Neandertals may have had a subtle, but somewhat different breathing mechanism compared to modern humans.

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来源:Nature Communications